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Corporate Culture Construction Program

The concept of corporate culture

 Broadly speaking, culture is the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth of historical practice of human society in the process of creation; the narrow sense, culture is the ideology of society and with organizations and institutions to adapt. The corporate culture is in production, management practice, and gradually formed the recognition and respect for all employees, with the mission of the organizational characteristics, vision, purpose, spirit, values and business philosophy, and these ideas in production and management reflect the sum of the practice, management systems, employee behavior and corporate external image. It is the cultural, educational, scientific, military and other cultural organizations are different in nature.
  

    Corporate culture is the soul, is an inexhaustible motive force to promote enterprise development. It contains a very rich content, its core is the spirit and values. Values are not here refers to business management in various cultural phenomena, but an enterprise or business employees engaged in commodity production and operations held values。
 

Different expressions of corporate culture concept  

The concept of corporate culture, made up of many different perceptions and expression:  
1, the American scholar John · Walcott and James · Heskett believes that corporate culture is an enterprise in various departments, at least those corporate values and business practices business executives who have in common. … … is an enterprise owned by one of the various functional departments or divisions located in different geographical sectors that common cultural phenomenon。
  

2, Tres · Deere and Allen · Kennedy believes that corporate culture is the values, heroes, customary rituals, cultural networks, enterprise environments.  

3, William · Ouchi believes that corporate culture is “ aggressive, defensive, flexibility - that determine the values of the activities, opinions and behavior patterns.   

4, the corporate culture is a new modern enterprise management theory, companies have to really step into the market, out of a development of faster, better efficiency, the overall quality continues to improve, so that the path of the coordination of economic development, we must spread and deepen corporate culture construction. 

5, the corporate culture has both broad and narrow understanding. Generalized corporate culture is an enterprise created by the material culture and spiritual culture has its own characteristics; narrow corporate culture is the business purpose of the enterprise with its own personality formed, values and construction of a comprehensive Code of Ethics.   

6, the corporate culture is a socio-cultural system is an important part organic, it is the national culture and modern consciousness within the enterprise and comprehensive reflection of the performance characteristics and having a sense of community at the enterprise culture and modern influences the formation of consciousness and this awareness generation behavior norms.   

7、   
(1) Corporate culture is the norm in the work group gradually formed.
  
(2) corporate culture is key values espoused as a business, is a far-reaching implications of the values, myths, heroes logo cohesion.  
 
(3) Corporate culture is to guide enterprises to develop employee and customer policy objectives. 
 
(4) Corporate culture is seeking to compete in the enterprise to survive “ ”, is the principle of new employees to be hired by enterprises must master the “ &rdquo ;. internal rules  
 
(5) Corporate culture is the enterprise layout object conveyed by the feeling or atmosphere, as well as corporate members and customers, or other members of the association of the way the outside world.
  
(6) The corporate culture is composed of traditional atmosphere of corporate culture, it means that the company's values, such as aggressive, defensive or flexible - these values constitute specification employees vigor, opinions and behavior. Management staff personally, to employees and to instill these norms from generation to generation.  
 
(7) certain cultural values ​​and historical traditions corporate culture is formed in an enterprise, the common value norms, ethics and living conditions, the various internal forces are united in common under the guiding ideology and philosophy, brought together to a common direction.
(8) Corporate culture is a mixture of economic significance and cultural meaning, values ​​in the business world refers to the formation of a code of conduct in the crowd and on the social impact of culture occurred. It does not refer to the cultivation of knowledge, but to people's attitudes towards knowledge; not profit, but the profit of psychology; not relationships, but interpersonal life skills embodied human philosophy. Corporate culture is a thing in all the activities of penetration among enterprises, it is the virtue lies.

(9) Corporate culture refers to the basic information of organization, the basic values ​​of external and internal environment check basic view is shared by all member companies comply with the norms and beliefs, value system, it is the guiding philosophy of the concept of people who work.

(10) Corporate culture is in a certain social and historical conditions, spiritual wealth and material characteristics of the enterprise having the form of production and operation and management activities created. It includes cultural attitudes, values, entrepreneurial spirit, round after round of norms, codes of conduct, history and tradition, enterprise system, cultural environment, enterprise products. Where the values ​​are the core of corporate culture.

Proposed the theory of corporate culture

Early 1980s, Harvard Graduate School of Education professor Terrence Deere and McKinsey & Company consultant Alan? Kennedy has accumulated a wealth of information on the management of long-term research firm. They in six months time, focused on 80 companies carried out a detailed investigation, wrote the "corporate culture - customs and manners of business survival," a book. After the book published in July 1981, it has become the best-selling management books. Later it was named the most influential of the 1980s of 10 management monograph one, become a classic discussion of corporate culture. It is rich with examples of that: outstanding and successful business has a strong corporate culture, all employees shall comply with, but often is a natural behavior rather than prescriptive norms in writing; and there are a variety used to promote, strengthen these values ​​rituals and customs. It is the corporate culture - a non-technical, non-economic factors, led to the creation of these decisions, the appointment and removal companies, small to employees' behavior, dress hobbies, habits. In the other two conditions are almost the same in the enterprise, due to its cultural strength, the consequences arising from the development of enterprises is entirely different.

Elements of corporate culture

Kennedy Deere and the corporate culture of the whole theory System Profiler five elements, namely business environment, values, heroes, cultural rituals and cultural networks.

Business environment is the nature of the business, the company's business direction, the external environment, corporate social image, contact with the outside world and so on. It often determines the behavior of enterprises.

Value refers to a member of the enterprise to an event or an act of good and bad, good and evil, right and wrong, whether it is worthwhile to follow the unanimous understanding. Values ​​are congratulatory corporate culture, the values ​​of unity of the inner member companies with a unified standard to judge their own behavior, and in order to choose their own behavior.

Hero is the central figure refers to the corporate culture or corporate culture personified, its role is as a living model to the enterprise for other employees to follow the example of the formation and strengthening of corporate culture plays a very important role .

Culture refers to various commendation ceremony, awards events, gatherings and recreational activities within the enterprise, etc., it can be something dramatic happened in the enterprise and visualization, to vivid propaganda and reflect the corporate values ​​that make it through These lively events to understand the meaning of corporate culture, so that corporate culture "edutainment" at home.

Culture network is informal channels of information transmission, mainly spread cultural information. It is a kind of informal organizations and groups, as well as the composition of a particular occasion, it conveys the information is often reflect the aspirations of workers and mentality.

Content of corporate culture

According to the definition of corporate culture, its content is very broad, but the most important should include the following:

1. Philosophy
Philosophy, also known as enterprise philosophy, is a unique enterprise engaged in production and management activities Methodology. It is the foundation to guide corporate behavior. A business in a highly competitive market environment, facing all kinds of contradictions and a variety of options, requires companies to have a scientific methodology to guide, a set of logical thinking program to determine their own behavior, which is the philosophy. For example, Japan's Matsushita company, "emphasizes the economic benefits, attention will to survive, everything seek survival and development," which is the philosophy of its strategic decisions. Beijing Blue Island Commercial Building, founded in 1994, it is the "good faith, friendship first" business philosophy as a guide, "to love was defined in order to take advantage of justice, justice and profit", so that in three years time the founder Turnover doubled inside, leapt capital business section 4.

2. Values
The so-called values, is based on some people utilitarian or moral nature of the pursuit of the people (individuals, organizations) very existence, behavior and behavioral outcomes were evaluated basic ideas. We can say that life is the pursuit of value, values ​​the pursuit of life determines the behavior. Values ​​are not the people on the issue reflected a moment, about the value of the concept of system but in the formation of long-term practice. Corporate values, is an enterprise workers the meaning of existence of the enterprise, business purposes, the business purpose of value evaluation and whom the pursuit of integration, a sense of community alienation is the common value standard business all employees. Only in value on the basis of common criteria in order to produce the correct value of the target companies. With the right value target value will have to pursue the goal of behavior struggling companies have hope. Thus, corporate values ​​determine the orientation of conduct for employees, the relationship between the survival of enterprises. Simply values ​​their own economic benefit, will deviate from the direction of socialism, it will not only harm the interests of countries and peoples, but also affect the corporate image; only immediate values, will be quick success, to engage in short-term behavior, so that enterprises lose momentum, resulting in perish. Our older generation of national entrepreneurs Zuofu (Minsheng Shipping Company's founder) to promote "personal service for the cause, the cause of social services, personal service is super compensation, career service is super-economy." So as to establish "service society, facilitate crowd, development industry, prosperous country "values, values ​​that the people of the country to promote the development of people's livelihood. Beijing Xidan Market values ​​to be realistic as the core, namely:. "Tangible goods, real prices, real service" in the course of business, strict stock clearance of goods, to ensure product quality; control purchase costs and improve value-added goods; promote "need to understand the customer always, always need to improve their own" concept, improve service quality, and promote the development of enterprises.

3. The spirit of enterprise
The spirit of enterprise is an enterprise based on its own specific nature, mission, purpose, and direction of development requirements of the times, and carefully cultivate the spirit of enterprise formed by members of the group.

The spirit of enterprise should have a conscious business practices embodied by all employees. Therefore, it is outside of the enterprise workers and progressive psychological concept of consciousness.

The spirit of enterprise is the core of enterprise culture, plays a dominant role in the whole corporate culture. The spirit of enterprise value-based, value-driven objectives, corporate philosophy, management system, morality, sense of community and corporate image plays a decisive role. We can say that the spirit of enterprise is the soul.

The spirit of enterprise is usually to be expressed in a number of both philosophical, and concise language, easy staff in mind, always used to motivate yourself; also facilitate outreach, easy to form the impression in people's minds, to form a distinct personality in the community Corporate image. As "a ball of fire," the spirit of the Wangfujing Department Store, is to use the building's heat and light to illuminate people, warm every heart, its essence is devotional service; "pragmatic, progressive" spirit of the Xidan Market, reflects the realistic to the core values ​​and sincere and trustworthy, forging ahead of management style.

4. Corporate Ethics
Corporate ethics is the sum of the behavior between the enterprise and other enterprises Adjustment, between enterprises and customers, the relationship between workers within the enterprise specification. It is from the perspective of the relationship between ethics, to evaluate and regulate business to good and evil, public and private, honor and disgrace, and so hypocritical morality and honesty as the standard.

Business ethics and legal norms and different institutional norms, does not have that kind of mandatory and binding, but have a positive demonstration effect and a strong appeal, when recognized and accepted by people with self-restraint after power. Therefore, it has a wider range of adaptability, it is an important means of restraint behavior of enterprises and workers. Chinese old Tongrentang pharmacy enduring reason for three hundred years, that it is the traditional virtue of the Chinese nation outstanding and into the business of production and management process, the formation of a professional ethics features with the industry, that is, "save the world of self-cultivation, better , fair trade and non-discriminatory. "

5. The sense of community
That community organizations, community awareness refers to the concept of collective organization members. Sense of community is an important psychological factor in the internal cohesion of the formation. The formation of business groups so that each employee awareness of enterprises to their work and behavior to achieve business goals as an integral part of that as a member of their own companies and are proud of the achievements of the enterprise to generate sense of honor, which the business community as their own interests and ownership. Therefore, they will achieve business goals and work hard and consciously overcome inconsistent behavior to achieve business goals.

6. Corporate image
Corporate image is the enterprise by external characteristics and operating strength manifested by consumers and the public recognition of the company's overall impression. Manifested by the external characteristics of the corporate image, said image surface, such as signs, facade, logos, advertising, trademarks, apparel, business environment, all of which gives an intuitive feeling, easy to form the impression; operating strength shown by the image He said deep image, it is a concentrated expression of the internal factors, such as the quality of personnel, production and management capacity, management, capital strength, product quality. Image is the image of the surface of the deep foundation, no deep image of this foundation, the surface image is false, it can not long be maintained. Since the main distribution companies are operators of goods and provision of services, more contact with the customer, so the surface of the image is particularly important, but it does not mean that the image can be placed deep secondary position. Beijing Xidan Market "honest and treat people, sincere touching, honest give, honest people" to establish a dedication to customer service corporate image, and this service is built on a beautiful shopping environment, reliable quality of goods, real , that is a strong material foundation and operating strength as the price on the basis of quality service assurance, to combine the image of the surface and deep image, won the trust of the majority of customers.

7. Enterprise System
Enterprise system is in production and management practice activities in the form of various provisions of human behavior with mandatory, and to protect certain rights. From the hierarchy of corporate culture, enterprises belong to the intermediate level system, it is the manifestation of spiritual culture, it is to ensure that material culture to achieve. Enterprise system as a model code of conduct for employees, the individual's activities to be reasonable, to coordinate internal and external human relations, the common interests of employees are protected, enabling enterprises to achieve business goals organized and orderly manner.

 

 

 

Corporate Culture Construction Program

Function of corporate culture
Research on corporate culture, its aim is to use the corporate culture for the survival and development of enterprises play a role. So, in the end what corporate culture functions?

[First, the corporate culture has a guiding function]

Guiding function is called by its business leaders and workers play a guiding role. Corporate culture guiding function in the following two aspects.

Instructions 1. philosophy and values
Philosophy of thinking determines the way of business and law deal with the problem, these methods and rules to guide operators to carry out the right decisions, using scientific methods to guide employees engaged in production activities. Common values ​​provides enterprise business values, so that employees consensus judgment of things, have a common value targets, corporate leaders and employees recognized the value of their target to act. American scholar Thomas? Peters and Robert? Waterman in "seeking advantage" in his book "All the best companies in our study are very clear about what their ideas are, and serious establishment and formation of the value of the company's guidelines. Facts on the value of a company's lack of clear criteria or values ​​is incorrect, we doubt whether it is possible to obtain operational success. "

2. The business goals of the guidelines
Business goals represent the direction of enterprise development, not the right target is equivalent disoriented. Perfect corporate culture will be from reality, with a scientific attitude to the system established business development goals, this goal must have a viable scientific. Enterprise employees are engaged in production activities under the guidance of this objective.

[Second, the constraint function of corporate culture]

Corporate culture bound function primarily through the improvement of the management system and ethics to achieve.

1. Effective regulatory constraints
Enterprise system is one of the elements of corporate culture. Enterprise system is the internal regulations, business leaders and enterprises must abide by and implement, thereby forming a binding.

2. The ethical constraints
Ethics from the perspective of ethical relationship to constrain business leaders and staff behavior. If people violate the code of ethics requirements, would be condemned opinion, psychologically you feel guilty. Tongrentang pharmacy "Jishi health, excellence, fair trade and non-discriminatory" code of ethics binding on all employees must strictly follow the technical rules, strict quality management, and strict discipline.

[Third, corporate culture, cohesion function]

People-oriented corporate culture, respect for people's feelings, resulting in a solidarity, mutual trust and harmonious atmosphere in the enterprise, and strengthen the sense of community, forming a strong cohesion and solidarity among enterprise employees. Common values ​​form the common goals and ideals, workers of the enterprise as a community of destiny, as the job is an important part of achieving the common goal, the whole enterprise in unison to form a unified whole. In this case, "factory-I-Rong, factory bad I shame" became the workers sincere feelings from the heart, "love plants such as home" will become their actions.

[IV] incentive function of corporate culture

Common values ​​so that each worker feel the value of their existence and behavior, to achieve self-worth is a way to meet people of the highest spiritual needs, this will create a strong incentive to meet. In a people-oriented corporate culture, leaders and workers, between workers and employees of mutual concern, support each other. Especially the leadership of the workers concerned, workers will feel respected, naturally inspired, hard work. In addition, entrepreneurship and corporate image of enterprise employees has a great role in encouraging, especially the building of enterprise culture to succeed, the point of impact in the community, enterprise workers will have a strong sense of honor and pride, they will redouble efforts to use their practical actions to safeguard the honor and image of the enterprise.

[V. Adjustment function]

Adjustment is to adjust and adapt. Enterprise between departments, between workers, due to various reasons will inevitably produce some conflicts, resolve these contradictions requires its own self-regulation; business and the environment, with customers, and enterprises, and will be between countries and social existence uncoordinated does not meet the Department, which also need to adjust and adapt. Business philosophy and business ethics and general staff so that the operators can handle these contradictions scientifically, consciously restrain himself. Perfect corporate image that these results adjusted. Adjustment is also a function of the actual performance of the dynamic role of business.

Four types of corporate culture

[In accordance with the organization's mission and mode of operation of different]

Kennedy Deere and the corporate culture into four types: the strongman culture; driving through, enjoy playing culture; tackling the culture; the process of culture.

1, the tough guy type culture.
This culture encourages internal competition and innovation, encourage risk-taking. Strong competition, faster product updates corporate culture characteristics

2, enjoy the type of work culture.
This culture to both work and play, and encouraging employees to complete work less risky. Competition is not strong, the product is relatively stable corporate culture characteristics.

3, bet type culture.
It has a careful analysis of the characteristics of the desperate. General investment large, slow corporate culture characteristics.

4, process-type culture.
This culture looks at how to do the basic work of no feedback, staff is difficult to measure the work they do. Organ is strong, step by step you can complete the task of the corporate culture characteristics

[In accordance with state and style of different enterprises into]

1, a dynamic enterprise culture.
Features are: heavy organization, the pursuit of innovation, with clear objectives, oriented outside, up and down about good communication, strong sense of responsibility.

2, stagnant corporate culture.
Features: instant success, no lofty goals with self-serving tendency to self-preservation, for the internal, slow, irresponsible.

3, bureaucratic corporate culture.
Features are: routine, red tape.

[In accordance with the nature and size of different enterprises into]

1, a greenhouse type.
This is a traditional state-owned enterprises specific. Not interested in the external environment, the lack of adventurous spirit, lack of incentives and constraints.

2, ten spike by type.
SMEs are endemic. With changes in the strategic environment and the transfer of its lack of order and organization structure, functions more dispersed. Basic value system is respected leader.

3, garden type.
Trying to maintain dominance in the traditional markets, paternalistic management, motivating staff at a lower level.

4, a large species type.
Big business unique. Its characteristics are constantly adapt to environmental change, the initiative of staff, the enthusiasm is excited.

[In accordance with the degree of importance of various factors enterprise divided into]

1, bureaucratic type.
Market monopoly companies have engaged in business. Non-personalized management style, pyramid organizational structure, focusing on standards, norms and follow rigid procedures, internal organization of the lack of competition, people secretly intrigue.

2, professional manager type.
Work-oriented, with clear standards, strict reward and punishment system, organizational structure full of flexibility, intense internal competition.

3, technology-based.
Technical expert in power, paternalism, relies heavily technical tips, functional organizational structure.

Structure of corporate culture

Corporate culture structure refers to the order of the elements of time and space within the corporate culture system between the primary and secondary status and binding way, the structure of the corporate culture is the corporate culture construction, form, level, content, type, etc. and the positional relation of proportion. It shows how to link the various elements, to form an overall pattern of corporate culture. That is, material culture, corporate behavior culture, enterprise system culture, entrepreneurship and cultural form.

Three structural elements of corporate culture
Three structural elements of corporate culture, that material culture elements, elements of corporate culture system, entrepreneurship and cultural features.
Inevitability theory of corporate culture appears

The emergence of corporate culture theory has its historical inevitability:

First, because of the development of productivity, the new office tools such as universal application, the daily management of business rules such as the Internet has also undergone some changes, changes in labor tools require updating ideas;

The second is to increase the proportion of labor human intelligence factors, the relative number of mental growth and, accordingly, managers can not put those deemed qualified employees robot, but to give employees with feelings of respect, respect for reason;

Third, with the development of productivity, people need to meet levels rising, companies must adapt to this new situation, in order to develop a method suitable for modern management, which is the "social" have the same basis in the reality of proposed management community ;

Fourth, increased competition, enterprises in order to win in the competition, improve labor efficiency, production staff enthusiasm and creativity become increasingly important in the labor, companies must meet the needs of the proposed values, such as innovation, service, reputation, etc. ;

Fifth, the expansion of business scale, the emergence of transnational corporations, hundreds of thousands of people, even of different nationalities, people of different nationalities working in a company, we need to unify thinking, the concept of unity, unified behavior.

Enterprises' cultural trait

historic
Historic property is one of the most basic of all social things. Enterprises in certain time and space condition occurs, the survival and development of enterprises of the phenomenon itself that was the social, political, economic, cultural refraction, business itself is creating history of the carrier, to discuss first, or the first business culture, as discussed in the first first, the egg or the chicken the same. The economic base determines the superstructure, corporate business and political activities, cultural phenomena inextricably links, lingering. We can say that corporate culture is a product of history, and certainly with the history of the brand, which reflects to a large era, a certain period of state, or a nation, a region, a small local area of ​​economic and cultural characteristics. Conversely, corporate culture, once formed, is also the transformation of the business environment in which, because companies will actually ahead of the times in the social life of the most active social organization, information and ideas blend change first from an enterprise. Base of the corporate culture is already relatively mature commodity economy theory.

Human nature
Corporate culture center of attention, is that of the human factor in business management and excited, though, so do the ultimate goal is to successfully achieve business value, but this does not prevent the companies to develop human potential as an entry point for enterprise management mode enormous tension. When the clothing, food and other basic survival needs are met, people need to meet the need to communicate, to be administered, needs to be respected, and so the need for realization of personal value. A person's life is the most precious, the longest time and space are used in his career, so growth and development needs and personal growth and development needs of the enterprise in the corporate culture at this level to achieve the perfect fit. Corporate culture is a people-oriented culture, focused on cultural factors to tap the potential of the enterprise, the role of respect and attention to the human factor in enterprise development.

Complexity
World no two identical leaves. Every business survival and development in a particular environment, facing the historical stage, the degree of development, as well as the inherent cultural heritage are not the same. Success can not be copied, corporate culture also can not copy. The others copy the success of corporate culture dogma act, or the same as Kuo talk about soldiers will excellent corporate culture as gospel truth, trying to find the universal truth, will eventually harm the business.

Dynamic
Once a company's corporate culture is formed, it has a relatively stable within a certain period of the. With the changes in the development of enterprises and the enterprises' survival environment, corporate culture also will be changed. There is a saying called "spiraling like," This is actually a development trend under an ideal state of excellent corporate culture. Rigid, corporate culture is also backward movement, not only within the enterprise after a reasonable sort, integration and cultural factors refining benign system is not formed, the ongoing clash of cultural factors quantitative accumulation. After an excellent corporate culture system is completed, it will display its external factors as well as cultural factors newborn strong absorption, tolerant, and digestion, form a dynamic open system.

Organic
Corporate culture is an integral organic system, each element of the corporate culture of a certain form of structural arrangement, the various elements are relatively independent of their duties. Meanwhile, the corporate culture is a systematic project, is a strict and orderly organic combination, from the inside associated companies linked to each other, mutual dependence, different levels of interaction, the combination of the different parts. Since corporate culture in order to achieve the ultimate goal of enterprise value, then it is impossible not to relate to the company's strategic planning; since people-oriented, it is impossible not related to human resources development; since it is a management method, it is impossible not involved the enterprise management system ...... we can say, is the reason why today's corporate culture management sector esteem, not unrelated to the nature of it.

 

 

 

Corporate Culture Construction Program

Commercial enterprises cultural characteristics

Compared to commercial enterprises and manufacturing enterprises, its corporate culture has the characteristics of the following two areas:

1. Commodity circulation marketing behavior corporate culture culture center

Cultural people-carrier, the cultural characteristics of an enterprise necessarily internalized into the hearts of every one of our employees and manifested through their behavior, including language, movement, facial expressions, manners and so on. This is outside of the corporate culture in their employees, known as behavioral culture. Commercial enterprises in marketing activities center, and marketing activities directly formed enterprise service offerings, so by marketing culture marketing behavior manifested in an important position, corporate and cultural center.

First of all, the customer needs excellent marketing behavior culture. Customers to the store, requires both commodities, but also in need of services, and services will facilitate customers to buy merchandise. Producers mainly in product display its competitive strength, circulation enterprises are mainly to attract customers through the service. Distribution companies, "service first" and "customer first" and "user is God" business philosophy to go through specific marketing activities can be achieved. Enthusiastic attitude, and regulate the operation, civilized business terms, mutual respect, courtesy, etc. are the customer needs, these will impress customers is an important aspect of the competitiveness of distribution companies formed.

Secondly, the marketing behavior of commodity circulation enterprise culture is cultural transmission window. Enterprises formed a corporate culture characteristics, improve the company's visibility and competitiveness, but it is built on the basis of user acceptance. Therefore, enterprises need to spread culture, only spread in order to improve the visibility and competitiveness. Any human social behavior have cultural meaning, it is a cultural symbol. Marketing Practices commercial enterprises marketing staff is reflected in the values ​​of the enterprise, entrepreneurship and institutional system and other cultural content. This is because the corporate culture oriented constraints, incentives and other functions, the role of these features, making inevitable marketing behavior of employees exhibit cultural characteristics of the enterprise, users and customers is based on the perception of their actions and recognized corporate culture characteristics, in order to achieve the spread of corporate culture.

2. Shopping environmental culture is an important part of corporate culture

Three hierarchical corporate culture, the environment, culture belongs to the material and cultural level, is the manifestation of spiritual culture. Including material elements of material culture products, technical conditions, process equipment, building facilities and production environment manifested cultural identity. Distribution companies because they do not manufacture the product, its material culture mainly refers shopping environment culture. Shopping mall environment including buildings, pavement, signs, store decoration, merchandise display, rest areas and computer information management system. Shopping environment is the overall performance of the construction of shopping malls, is the external image, which reflects the operating strength, morale and management level. Shopping environment is a necessary condition of commercial enterprises, especially for business subsistence malls, shopping environment will directly affect the customer's shopping mood. Warm colors, eye-catching signs to make people look over and forget, the unique facade and clean, comfortable pavement environment (including merchandise display) to customers in the United States experience, fast and accurate cash register facilities to make customers feel convenient and reliable, and so on. Elegant shopping environment for customers with great appeal. Different types of distribution companies, customer requirements are not exactly the same shopping environment, management of production materials business, because many commodities are not on display at the site, users need to have a computer system to provide product information; in large department stores, customers variety, higher display diverse requirements; for supermarkets, customers pay more attention to "open and easy to access." Japanese experts have conducted a survey on this issue. Investigation election in a district were 5.2 million people, issued a total of 2000 questionnaires in the recovery of 1600 valid questionnaires, the results are obtained as shown in Figure 10-1. The result also shows that, from the perspective of the customer concerned, the commercial enterprises of the shopping environment in an important position, the environment and cultural commodities is an important part of corporate culture.

Corporate Cultures in different countries and management characteristics

Culture and ethnic inseparable, certain cultural always certain ethnic culture. Corporate culture is the culture of a country's microstructure, which is part of the national culture of the country, so the characteristics of the corporate culture of a country on behalf of the actual characteristics of the country's national culture. Corporate culture and management characteristics Here we only represent the ethnic and cultural characteristics of Eastern and Western countries and regions to make some brief introduction.

First, the American model of corporate culture and management characteristics

The United States is a multi-ethnic nation of immigrants, which determines the national culture of American individualism features.

American corporate culture as the core of individualism, but this selfish individualism is not a general concept, but the emphasis on individual independence, initiative, personality and personal achievements. In this dominant ideology of individualism, American business management to individuals based activism, encouraging employees to personal struggle, the implementation of personal responsibility, personal decisions. Thus, in the American enterprise more prominent personal heroism, many companies often business entrepreneurs or companies to make a significant contribution to personal esteem for the hero. Enterprise Evaluation is also based on the ability of workers Principle, pay increases and also look at the functional ability and job performance, regardless of age, seniority and qualifications and other factors. Individualism corporate culture characterized by a lack of common values, goals and personal value of the enterprise value of the target is inconsistent, companies with strict organizational structure, strict rules and regulations to manage staff to pursue corporate goals. Workers only the enterprise as achieving personal goals and self-worth of properties and methods.

Second, European countries, the corporate culture and management model characteristics

European culture is influenced by Christianity, Christianity provides the ideal price for the European model of morality. Christian belief in God, that God is merciful, God requires mutual love between people should. Influenced by the idea of ​​European culture pursues personal values, emphasizing personal high levels of demand. Europeans also pay attention to reason and science, emphasizing logical reasoning and rational analysis.

While the spiritual foundation of European corporate culture is the same, but because of the different cultures of each nation, each country in Europe there are also differences in corporate culture. British because of cultural background, strong hereditary ideas, has been regarded as the upper class aristocratic landowners, business owners in the lower social classes. Therefore, the values ​​of British entrepreneurs and more attention to social status class differences, not with superior management performance to prove their social value, but do everything possible to make their own to join the upper class, so legalistic in the business, adventurous spirit of the poor.

The most prominent feature of French nationalism, arrogant, snobbish and condescending, so the French enterprise management exhibits a closed conservative ideas.

Italy pursues the free, self-centered, so the enterprise management is poor organization and discipline, low levels of structured business organizations. But because the vast majority of Italian businesses are SMEs and, loosely organized business life did not affect outstanding.

German bureaucrats consciousness more concentrated, strong organization and discipline, and hard work. Therefore, the enterprise management in Germany, a huge decision-making body, the decision-making collectivization, ensure worker participation in management, often spend more time argument, but the high quality of decision making. Corporate executives strict division, the department responsible for only a competent, no deputy. Workers participate in a broad and informal business management, many laws to protect the rights of workers participate in business management. Workers involved in business management business primarily through participation in the supervisory board and the board of directors to achieve. According to "Employee Involvement Act" stipulates that enterprises with more than two million people, 20, labor representatives of each half, Labour's 10 representatives, elected seven people within the enterprise and outside the enterprise elected three people; 10,000 to 20,000 people of enterprise , the Supervisory Board of 16 people, eight employee representatives, within which businesses elect six people, two people outside the enterprise elected, 10,000 people less corporate, labor representatives in the Supervisory Board members are equally divided.

Third, the Japanese model of corporate culture and management characteristics

Japan is a mono-ethnic country, the social structure of a unified long-term stability, a strong commonality of ideas. Meanwhile, the impact of Chinese Confucian ethics of the Japanese nation by focusing on "and", "trust", "honesty" and ethics, the Japanese attach great importance to deal with interpersonal relationships. These decisions of the Japanese corporate culture and consistent pro team of its features. "And" The Japanese companies as a philosophical concept applied to management, is a guide to corporate actions.

As a team characterized by Japanese corporate culture, so that enterprises up and down in unison to maintain harmony, mutual humility, cooperation, and oppose the individual master recognition and internal competition. Enterprise is a community of interests, common values ​​enable business goals and personal goals consistent. Business like a family, members of harmony, the higher interest subordinates, rights and responsibilities divided not so clear, collective decision-making, consensus before a decision once a problem not blame individual responsibility, but more for their self-criticism . Enterprises to workers lifetime employment, Nenko wage system.

Japan is an island nation, but she was not a closed conservative, innovative spirit is strong, a lot of attention to the absorption of Western culture in science and technology and rational management, and combined with the traditional culture, forming a huge productivity.

四、中国企业文化的现状   

  新中国成立以前,受外国资本和封建官僚买办控制的企业中,劳动者处于被残酷剥削和压迫之下,他们没有自由,没有平等,有的只是愤怒和反抗。在旧中国,具有一定代理性的中国企业文化只有在民族资本主义企业中才存在,它是由老一代的民族企业家所倡导的。前面已经提到的由民生轮船公司的创始人卢作孚先生于1925年所倡导的“民生精神”就是一例。   

  新中国成立以后,国有企业是中国经济的主体,企业文化也如同整个国家的经济建设一样,经历了一番曲折的道路。在传统计划经济体制下,高度集权的管理模式对企业文化建设既有积极的一面,也存在着严重的消极因素。所谓积极的一面是有利于体现企业的社会主义共性,形成注重国家利益的大集体观念和艰苦奋斗精神,如50-60年代出现的“两参一改三结合”的“鞍钢宪法”和“三老四严”的“大庆精神”,就是这种观念和精神的代表。所谓消极的一面,是这种集权管理模式强化了“官本位”观念,管理活动行政化,职工群众的积极性未能充分发挥出来,民主管理的监督约束机制显得无力。特别是在极“左”思潮的干预下,“以阶级斗争为纲”,把政治挂帅绝对化,严重阻碍了企业民主制度的建立和监督制度的形成。实行经济体制改革以后,传统计划经济体制逐步转换为社会主义市场经济体制,中国企业文化建设的环境开始转变,特别是现代企业制度的建立,为建立有中国民族特色的企业文化创造了有利的政治法律环境,企业文化建设也取得了明显成效,本章中所列举的例子说明了这一点。   

  中国是一个历史悠久的文明国家,中国的传统文化内涵丰富,其中既有积极的一面,也有消极的一面。关于如何利用传统文化中的积极因素建立有中国特色的企业文化,稍后再作讨论。

 

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